Acts 17


This is one of my favorite chapters in the Bible.  Paul is in Greece, where he gives a winsome, thorough and excellent presentation of the Gospel.  He understands his audiences well and treats them with respect.  Yet he doesn’t patronize them or water down the message.  Those who are interested in hearing more do so, but many reject it and walk away.  Paul doesn’t run and tackle them to make them hear more.

In Thessalonica

17     When they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a Jewish synagogue. 2 As his custom was, Paul went into the synagogue, and on three Sabbath days he reasoned with them from the Scriptures, 3 explaining and proving that the Christ had to suffer and rise from the dead. “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Christ,” he said. 4 Some of the Jews were persuaded and joined Paul and Silas, as did a large number of God-fearing Greeks and not a few prominent women.

Once again, the focus is always on the evidence and explanation of Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection.  Also note the notation of women joining Paul and Silas.

5 But the Jews were jealous; so they rounded up some bad characters from the marketplace, formed a mob and started a riot in the city. They rushed to Jason’s house in search of Paul and Silas in order to bring them out to the crowd. 6 But when they did not find them, they dragged Jason and some other brothers before the city officials, shouting: “These men who have caused trouble all over the world have now come here, 7 and Jason has welcomed them into his house. They are all defying Caesar’s decrees, saying that there is another king, one called Jesus.” 8 When they heard this, the crowd and the city officials were thrown into turmoil. 9 Then they made Jason and the others post bond and let them go.

Christians around the world still suffer from persecution as Jason and his brothers in Christ did.

In Berea

10 As soon as it was night, the brothers sent Paul and Silas away to Berea. On arriving there, they went to the Jewish synagogue. 11 Now the Bereans were of more noble character than the Thessalonians, for they received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true. 12 Many of the Jews believed, as did also a number of prominent Greek women and many Greek men.

V. 11 speaks volumes about the Christian faith and helps explode the myth of a “blind faith” and that Christians aren’t open-minded.  The Bereans were lauded for questioning Paul to see if what he said lined up with Scripture.  We should all do the same when we listen to or read anything inside or outside the church.  The false teachers would have much smaller followings if people knew the Bible better.

13 When the Jews in Thessalonica learned that Paul was preaching the word of God at Berea, they went there too, agitating the crowds and stirring them up. 14 The brothers immediately sent Paul to the coast, but Silas and Timothy stayed at Berea. 15 The men who escorted Paul brought him to Athens and then left with instructions for Silas and Timothy to join him as soon as possible.

In Athens

16 While Paul was waiting for them in Athens, he was greatly distressed to see that the city was full of idols.

Are you greatly distressed at all the idols in our culture?

17 So he reasoned in the synagogue with the Jews and the God-fearing Greeks, as well as in the marketplace day by day with those who happened to be there. 18 A group of Epicurean and Stoic philosophers began to dispute with him. Some of them asked, “What is this babbler trying to say?” Others remarked, “He seems to be advocating foreign gods.” They said this because Paul was preaching the good news about Jesus and the resurrection.

Paul was very well educated and knew how these philosphers thought.  He took that into account with his Gospel presentation but he still preached Jesus and the resurrection. 

 19 Then they took him and brought him to a meeting of the Areopagus, where they said to him, “May we know what this new teaching is that you are presenting? 20 You are bringing some strange ideas to our ears, and we want to know what they mean.” 21 (All the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there spent their time doing nothing but talking about and listening to the latest ideas.)

22 Paul then stood up in the meeting of the Areopagus and said: “Men of Athens! I see that in every way you are very religious. 23 For as I walked around and looked carefully at your objects of worship, I even found an altar with this inscription: TO AN UNKNOWN GOD. Now what you worship as something unknown I am going to proclaim to you.

Paul could have mocked them for worshiping an unknown God, but he used it to shift to the truth of God.

24 “The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands. 25 And he is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything, because he himself gives all men life and breath and everything else. 26 From one man he made every nation of men, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he determined the times set for them and the exact places where they should live. 27 God did this so that men would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 28 ‘For in him we live and move and have our being.’ As some of your own poets have said, ‘We are his offspring.’

That passage is one of the answers to the question of what happens to people who haven’t heard of Jesus.  God is there for everyone.  He knows exactly where each person will live and for how long. 

Paul knew their culture well and even quoted one of their poets.

29 “Therefore since we are God’s offspring, we should not think that the divine being is like gold or silver or stone—an image made by man’s design and skill. 30 In the past God overlooked such ignorance, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent. 31 For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead.”

32 When they heard about the resurrection of the dead, some of them sneered, but others said, “We want to hear you again on this subject.” 33 At that, Paul left the Council. 34 A few men became followers of Paul and believed. Among them was Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus, also a woman named Damaris, and a number of others.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996, c1984. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Paul didn’t offer cheap grace.  He said that God has commanded that people repent and he preached the death and ressurection of Jesus.  He taught that God will judge the world and resurrect the dead.  We should teach the same things. 

Somewhere towards the back

lovejoy2.jpgThe Simpsons TV show has countless religious references.  Their main objective, of course, is to garner laughs, but some are insightful (whether the writers meant them to be or not).  Here’s one of my favorites:

Lisa [standing in the pulpit]: I know most of you have already judged my brother guilty without any proof.  But doesn’t the Bible teach us, “Judge not, lest ye be judged?”

Reverend Lovejoy: I think it may be somewhere towards the back.

Many Christians (and non-Christians) pick and choose what they like in the Bible (see Dalmatian Theology for more on that).  Reverend Lovejoy doesn’t like the verse he’s hearing so he downplays it by implying that implying that it is towards the back of the Bible (it is actually in Matthew 7). 

A group calling themselves “Red-letter Christians” claim to focus on the specific quotes of Jesus (typed in red letters in some Bibles).  But there is a big problem with this approach: Jesus is God, and all of the Bible is God’s Word.  The black letters don’t trump the red letters and don’t carry more weight.  They may be special for some reasons, but they are no more authoritative.  (The aforementioned group is twisting the scriptures anyway to suit a political agenda).

Of course, Lisa is interpeting the verse incorrectly as well by making common mistakes – taking the Bible too literally and not in context.  If she would keep reading she would see that Jesus meant not to judge hypocritically. There are plenty of verses teaching that we need to make sound judgments, such as John 7:24 (“Stop judging on mere appearances and make a right judgment.”)

See how many Bible lessons you can glean from The Simpsons?

Will we learn from Europe’s mistakes?

world-map.gifConsider these options:

  • Good: Learn from your mistakes
  • Better: Learn from other people’s mistakes
  • Best: Read the Bible and avoid mistakes

Europe has given the following message to God: Get out.  They are closing churches and opening mosques at a rapid rate.  They naively think that Muslims want to assimilate, but the truth is they have no intention of doing so.  They want to infiltrate and then subject the infidels to Sharia law. 

America’s leaders don’t seem to be learning from this.

Here’s a mystery: In post-9/11 America, why does Islam have favored status and why has its image improved relative to Christianity?  Islam is anti-women’s rights, anti-freedom, virulently anti-gay and anti-abortion, etc.  My hypothesis is that many liberals simply hate Christianity, and they fall victim to the “my enemy’s enemy is my friend” line of thinking.

Do you think radical Islamists are serious?  Do you think they will use nuclear weapons if they get them?  I do.  

We will not rest from our Jihad until we are under the olive trees of Rumieh and we have destroyed the dirty black house — which is called the White House” – al-Muhajir

Naivete’ is not a virtue. 

Acts 16


Timothy Joins Paul and Silas

16     He came to Derbe and then to Lystra, where a disciple named Timothy lived, whose mother was a Jewess and a believer, but whose father was a Greek. 2 The brothers at Lystra and Iconium spoke well of him. 3 Paul wanted to take him along on the journey, so he circumcised him because of the Jews who lived in that area, for they all knew that his father was a Greek. 4 As they traveled from town to town, they delivered the decisions reached by the apostles and elders in Jerusalem for the people to obey. 5 So the churches were strengthened in the faith and grew daily in numbers.

Paul preaches against the circumcision group in the Book of Galatians and we just read in chapter 15 of the Book of Acts how the church clearly agreed that we are saved by grace and not by works.  Circumcision, a Jewish ritual, was not required to be a Christian.

 So why did Paul have Timothy circumcised?  Was he being inconsistent or adding to the Gospel?  No, Paul’s mission was to advance the Gospel and everything else was subordinated to that.  He realized that if Timothy was uncircumcised it could be a barrier to sharing the Gospel with Jewish people.  It wasn’t required for Timothy to be a Christian, but it was helping in spreading the Good News.

Paul’s Vision of the Man of Macedonia

6 Paul and his companions traveled throughout the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been kept by the Holy Spirit from preaching the word in the province of Asia. 7 When they came to the border of Mysia, they tried to enter Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus would not allow them to. 8 So they passed by Mysia and went down to Troas. 9 During the night Paul had a vision of a man of Macedonia standing and begging him, “Come over to Macedonia and help us.” 10 After Paul had seen the vision, we got ready at once to leave for Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to preach the gospel to them.

They received clear supernatural guidance on where to go and where not to go.  Yet other times Paul chose to pursue different ministry opportunities even though a door had been opened for him.  God can still work this way, though we must always test such things in light of scripture.  It is far too easy for us to think God told us something when it is really just what we wanted to hear.

Lydia’s Conversion in Philippi

11 From Troas we put out to sea and sailed straight for Samothrace, and the next day on to Neapolis. 12 From there we traveled to Philippi, a Roman colony and the leading city of that district of Macedonia. And we stayed there several days.

13 On the Sabbath we went outside the city gate to the river, where we expected to find a place of prayer. We sat down and began to speak to the women who had gathered there. 14 One of those listening was a woman named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth from the city of Thyatira, who was a worshiper of God. The Lord opened her heart to respond to Paul’s message. 15 When she and the members of her household were baptized, she invited us to her home. “If you consider me a believer in the Lord,” she said, “come and stay at my house.” And she persuaded us.

It appears that there was not a synagogue in Philippi, but Paul preached to women who had gathered to pray. 

Paul and Silas in Prison

16 Once when we were going to the place of prayer, we were met by a slave girl who had a spirit by which she predicted the future. She earned a great deal of money for her owners by fortune-telling. 17 This girl followed Paul and the rest of us, shouting, “These men are servants of the Most High God, who are telling you the way to be saved.” 18 She kept this up for many days. Finally Paul became so troubled that he turned around and said to the spirit, “In the name of Jesus Christ I command you to come out of her!” At that moment the spirit left her.

19 When the owners of the slave girl realized that their hope of making money was gone, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them into the marketplace to face the authorities. 20 They brought them before the magistrates and said, “These men are Jews, and are throwing our city into an uproar 21 by advocating customs unlawful for us Romans to accept or practice.”

22 The crowd joined in the attack against Paul and Silas, and the magistrates ordered them to be stripped and beaten. 23 After they had been severely flogged, they were thrown into prison, and the jailer was commanded to guard them carefully. 24 Upon receiving such orders, he put them in the inner cell and fastened their feet in the stocks.

25 About midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and the other prisoners were listening to them. 26 Suddenly there was such a violent earthquake that the foundations of the prison were shaken. At once all the prison doors flew open, and everybody’s chains came loose. 27 The jailer woke up, and when he saw the prison doors open, he drew his sword and was about to kill himself because he thought the prisoners had escaped. 28 But Paul shouted, “Don’t harm yourself! We are all here!”

29 The jailer called for lights, rushed in and fell trembling before Paul and Silas. 30 He then brought them out and asked, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?”

31 They replied, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved—you and your household.” 32 Then they spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all the others in his house. 33 At that hour of the night the jailer took them and washed their wounds; then immediately he and all his family were baptized. 34 The jailer brought them into his house and set a meal before them; he was filled with joy because he had come to believe in God—he and his whole family.

This is such a powerful story!  First, consider how Paul had an “open door” – literally and figuratively – to move on.  Yet he stayed! 

Knowing Paul, he had probably witnessed to the jailer over and over.  When Paul didn’t leave it was the jailer’s final proof that what Paul said was true. 

What a great witness: Paul and his companions were severely beaten and thrown in jail yet they were singing and praying to God.  That is convicting to me, especially when I think of all the blessings we have an how it is so easy to complain about little things or to want more.

And how was the jailer saved?  By believing in the Lord Jesus.  That’s it. 

I have heard this passage used to support infant baptism (“he and all his family were baptized”), but seems like a stretch to me. 

35 When it was daylight, the magistrates sent their officers to the jailer with the order: “Release those men.” 36 The jailer told Paul, “The magistrates have ordered that you and Silas be released. Now you can leave. Go in peace.”

37 But Paul said to the officers: “They beat us publicly without a trial, even though we are Roman citizens, and threw us into prison. And now do they want to get rid of us quietly? No! Let them come themselves and escort us out.”

38 The officers reported this to the magistrates, and when they heard that Paul and Silas were Roman citizens, they were alarmed. 39 They came to appease them and escorted them from the prison, requesting them to leave the city. 40 After Paul and Silas came out of the prison, they went to Lydia’s house, where they met with the brothers and encouraged them. Then they left.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996, c1984. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.


bella.jpgCareNet Pregnancy Center of NW Houston bought a whole showing of the award-winning movie Bella.  It was a terrific movie with a strong pro-life theme.

Here’s an excerpt from one review.

Bella is an unusually intelligent, humane film that reminds us how easy it is to impact one person’s life—and perhaps save another’s—simply by being sensitive to hurting people and carving out time to care. It is a tender tale of grace, faith, redemption and the sanctity of life. It doesn’t showcase A-list stars or wield a multi-gazillion dollar budget. Rather, it’s an intimate narrative that will surely fly well beneath the Hollywood blockbuster radar. But it’s a film that does fly directly in the face of Hollywood’s—and society’s—”it’s all about me” credo.

Eduardo Verástegui knows his little film (he also co-produced it) won’t dominate the box office. But he doesn’t mind. “I was caught up in the stardom and money of this business, like so many actors,” he told us, “But I was drawn to do this. To just do something worthwhile.” Thus, he and his fellow producers stepped away from successful careers to pursue an independent film with no guarantees. He said with emotion, “What I’d love to see happen with this film is to someday have this 12-year-old knock on my door and say that her mother was going to have an abortion. But she saw this film. That would be my Oscar.”

He continued, “This film is for the Ninas of the world. This film is not for the people who already agree that life is personal and has dignity. I want to touch the girls who come from broken families who don’t know anything about all these important issues—and next thing you know they find themselves pregnant and they think it’s fine to just go and have an abortion because that is what they have been taught. I want to reach them and embrace them and love them through the film and then by that they can choose what is best for them, which is to have their baby.”

Bella‘s pondering of love and true values may just be vivid enough to accomplish the things Verástegui hopes it will.

Check it out!

Guest post: Tough decisions

From an email by Sunday School Teacher (long time commenter, first time guest-blogger).  I thought it was worth sharing.

After some of the discussions on abortion on your blog; I want to relate the story of a young friend of mine. I cited this case in a comment before knowing the outcome. I said I could not condemn these kids if they had an abortion, well I am glad (and a little ashamed) that they had more faith than I did. Our families have been friends for four generations and he went through school (K-12) with my oldest son.

Luke (not his real name) got married about a year and a half ago. About nine months ago the couple found out they were going to have a baby. This was a planned pregnancy and they were overjoyed.

About three months into the pregnancy they learned that their baby had serious problems. It was not likely that the baby would survive the pregnancy and if he did he would not live more than 2 weeks in the best case. The doctors recommended an abortion.

I don’t know the young lady Luke married very well, but Luke has gone to church regularly his whole life (not Methodist), with parents and grandparents whose religion involves a lot more that just going to church. So, the young couple did what I would say was the right thing, they talked to their parents, they talked to their pastor, they talked to other Christians, and of course they talked to God. I know they heard many sound and sincere arguments on both sides.

In the end they chose not to have an abortion. As the time for the baby’s birth drew near, there was more bad news. The baby’s kidneys had not developed and his lungs were only partly developed. There was no chance the child could survive his birth.

So the couple decided to have a c-section so that the baby could avoid the trauma of birth. They did so knowing that the child would still not live more than a few hours. The little boy came into the world without having to struggle to breathe with those weak lungs.

The family was prepared, both sets of grandparents were there; everyone held the baby and they tried to put a life-time of love into those few hours they would have. Well they had three precious hours and then the baby died.

I don’t know what happens to these little ones, but I am inclined to believe that if this couple holds on to their faith; one day they will be greeted in heaven by a soul full of love and apreciation for those three hours. They could not choose life, but they could choose not to have their son killed by the violence of abortion or even the trauma of birth. Instead the boy died in the loving arms of his parents.

I think that’s quite a story but it doesn’t quite end yet. Thanks to his parents, the little boy with the weak lungs and no kidneys had a perfect heart. It had not been damaged by the trauma that would have occurred during his birth. So those fine kids donated that heart, so that somewhere some other baby might have a chance to live. I have thought about it a lot and I think that in that sad birthing room, that dying little boy was not the only one with a perfect heart.

I think the key thing here is that they looked for God’s will and tried to follow it. Who could have foreseen the outcome, only God. I know another couple who sought God’s will just as hard and did have the abortion, their child had no brain and could not possibly have survived. I know it sounds strange, but I think both couples made the right decision. When you seek God’s will in these things, I don’t think he makes it hard to find. You just have to have faith that he knows what he is doing.

Feel free to use the story if it will help someone, it is absolutely true. It has certainly made me think, I am not sure if I would have such faith.

God Bless,

“Sunday school teacher”

Weekly roundup

Why Muslims convert to Christianity – an important list of things to be aware of.

Logical consequences of PC “tolerance”

Do you remember the mainstream media covering the death of this woman at a “safe” abortion clinic?  Me neither.

The World Health Organization publishes a study claiming that laws against abortion do nothing to deter them.  And you can trust them, of course, because the group that did the research was a Planned Parenthood affiliate.  And Planned Parenthood would never lie (except when they hide rapists and such).

And don’t forget Planned Parenthood’s warnings about abortion: “An abortion kills the life of a baby after it has begun. It is dangerous to your life and health. It may make you sterile so that when you want a child you cannot have it.”

Acts 15


The Council at Jerusalem

15     Some men came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the brothers: “Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved.” 2 This brought Paul and Barnabas into sharp dispute and debate with them. So Paul and Barnabas were appointed, along with some other believers, to go up to Jerusalem to see the apostles and elders about this question. 3 The church sent them on their way, and as they traveled through Phoenicia and Samaria, they told how the Gentiles had been converted. This news made all the brothers very glad.

Churches should truly celebrate when new believers join the body of Christ.

4 When they came to Jerusalem, they were welcomed by the church and the apostles and elders, to whom they reported everything God had done through them.

5 Then some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees stood up and said, “The Gentiles must be circumcised and required to obey the law of Moses.”

The Book of Galatians covers Paul’s scathing response to the “circumsion group” who wanted Gentile Christians to be required to be circumsised.  Paul clearly showed how Jesus’ death and resurrection plus other works was a false teaching.

6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question. 7 After much discussion, Peter got up and addressed them: “Brothers, you know that some time ago God made a choice among you that the Gentiles might hear from my lips the message of the gospel and believe. 8 God, who knows the heart, showed that he accepted them by giving the Holy Spirit to them, just as he did to us. 9 He made no distinction between us and them, for he purified their hearts by faith. 10 Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of the disciples a yoke that neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear? 11 No! We believe it is through the grace of our Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are.”

This is a clear and emphatic statement that we are saved by grace, not by things we do.

12 The whole assembly became silent as they listened to Barnabas and Paul telling about the miraculous signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 13 When they finished, James spoke up: “Brothers, listen to me. 14 Simon has described to us how God at first showed his concern by taking from the Gentiles a people for himself. 15 The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written:

16 “‘After this I will return and rebuild David’s fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it, 17 that the remnant of men may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who bear my name, says the Lord, who does these things’ 18 that have been known for ages.

19 “It is my judgment, therefore, that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles who are turning to God. 20 Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood. 21 For Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath.”

The Council’s Letter to Gentile Believers

22 Then the apostles and elders, with the whole church, decided to choose some of their own men and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas. They chose Judas (called Barsabbas) and Silas, two men who were leaders among the brothers. 23 With them they sent the following letter:

The apostles and elders, your brothers,

To the Gentile believers in Antioch, Syria and Cilicia:


24 We have heard that some went out from us without our authorization and disturbed you, troubling your minds by what they said. 25 So we all agreed to choose some men and send them to you with our dear friends Barnabas and Paul— 26 men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 27 Therefore we are sending Judas and Silas to confirm by word of mouth what we are writing. 28 It seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us not to burden you with anything beyond the following requirements: 29 You are to abstain from food sacrificed to idols, from blood, from the meat of strangled animals and from sexual immorality. You will do well to avoid these things.


30 The men were sent off and went down to Antioch, where they gathered the church together and delivered the letter. 31 The people read it and were glad for its encouraging message. 32 Judas and Silas, who themselves were prophets, said much to encourage and strengthen the brothers. 33 After spending some time there, they were sent off by the brothers with the blessing of peace to return to those who had sent them. 35 But Paul and Barnabas remained in Antioch, where they and many others taught and preached the word of the Lord.

Disagreement Between Paul and Barnabas

36 Some time later Paul said to Barnabas, “Let us go back and visit the brothers in all the towns where we preached the word of the Lord and see how they are doing.” 37 Barnabas wanted to take John, also called Mark, with them, 38 but Paul did not think it wise to take him, because he had deserted them in Pamphylia and had not continued with them in the work. 39 They had such a sharp disagreement that they parted company. Barnabas took Mark and sailed for Cyprus, 40 but Paul chose Silas and left, commended by the brothers to the grace of the Lord. 41 He went through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening the churches.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996, c1984. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

There were conflicts in the early church.  Paul and Mark eventually reconciled.  It is better to have disagreements and work towards the truth on important matters than to favor unity over doctrine.

Public speaking tips


I’m no Ronald Reagan, but I feel qualified to address this topic because I have gone from being petrified of speaking in public to actually enjoying it, and from being lousy at it to getting some kudos for it.  I won’t be hitting the professional circuit anytime soon ever, but my views and abilities on the topic are night and day from years ago.  I used to avoid it at all costs.  Now it is more like, “Oooh, look . . . a microphone!”

Just a few years ago I was too nervous to pray in a small Sunday School class, but now I am comfortable giving lay sermons to 500 people.  Of course, I still get a little nervous, but it is more of a positive energy now.  I’ve had opportunities to speak to sizable groups at work and at Internal Audit conferences as well.

It is a “duh” statement to say that practice is important, but where can you practice safely?  One area that helped me was teaching Junior Achievement classes. Executives may discreetly look at their laptops if they are bored by your presentation, but junior high students will give you immediate feedback by going to sleep or talking to friends.  The teachers were good at keeping the kids in line, but I tried to do my part by not speaking for too long at a stretch.  I learned to keep things simple and to speak conversationally with them.

I never, ever just read text.  Never.  I always use outlines.  My goal is to just talk to people, not give them a speech.

I rehearse, but not excessively and not in word-for-word manner.  It is more like having a lot of chunks of sentences in my head that I use when I get to a slide.  Knowing your material well is crucial – not so that you have it memorized, but so that you can talk about it and answer questions.

A little ad-libbing is OK.  A lot is horrible. 

PowerPoint slides are my best friends.  I keep them colorful but simple.  No long sentences – just a few bullet points. 

I never joined Toastmasters but know many people who have.  They would be an excellent organization to learn and practice in.  There is a similar group in the unit where I do some prison ministry and you can tell how much the inmates have learned from it. 

Do you have any fears or specific needs for your public speaking duties?  If I can do it, you can do it.  There is hope!

Acts 14

acts-14.jpgGreetings!  We know so much about Paul because of the letters he wrote and his travels documented here in the Book of Acts.  Yet notice how often he is referred to with others, and how many people he thanks in his letters.  Here he is teaming with Barnabas.

In Iconium

14     At Iconium Paul and Barnabas went as usual into the Jewish synagogue. There they spoke so effectively that a great number of Jews and Gentiles believed. 2 But the Jews who refused to believe stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds against the brothers. 3 So Paul and Barnabas spent considerable time there, speaking boldly for the Lord, who confirmed the message of his grace by enabling them to do miraculous signs and wonders. 4 The people of the city were divided; some sided with the Jews, others with the apostles. 5 There was a plot afoot among the Gentiles and Jews, together with their leaders, to mistreat them and stone them. 6 But they found out about it and fled to the Lycaonian cities of Lystra and Derbe and to the surrounding country, 7 where they continued to preach the good news.

As recounted elsewhere, Paul suffered greatly for his faith – beatings, stoning, jail, forty lashes on at least five occasions, and more.  Fortunately, as in this case, he sometimes escaped without harm.

In Lystra and Derbe

8 In Lystra there sat a man crippled in his feet, who was lame from birth and had never walked. 9 He listened to Paul as he was speaking. Paul looked directly at him, saw that he had faith to be healed 10 and called out, “Stand up on your feet!” At that, the man jumped up and began to walk.

As with Jesus, healings by the Apostles were dramatic, complete and immediate.

11 When the crowd saw what Paul had done, they shouted in the Lycaonian language, “The gods have come down to us in human form!” 12 Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul they called Hermes because he was the chief speaker. 13 The priest of Zeus, whose temple was just outside the city, brought bulls and wreaths to the city gates because he and the crowd wanted to offer sacrifices to them.

14 But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of this, they tore their clothes and rushed out into the crowd, shouting: 15 “Men, why are you doing this? We too are only men, human like you. We are bringing you good news, telling you to turn from these worthless things to the living God, who made heaven and earth and sea and everything in them. 16 In the past, he let all nations go their own way. 17 Yet he has not left himself without testimony: He has shown kindness by giving you rain from heaven and crops in their seasons; he provides you with plenty of food and fills your hearts with joy.” 18 Even with these words, they had difficulty keeping the crowd from sacrificing to them.

God’s “common grace” is available to everyone (food, water, clothing, life itself), but we tend to take it for granted.

Paul and Barnabas were preaching accurately, but some hearers misunderstood it and started to worship them. 

19 Then some Jews came from Antioch and Iconium and won the crowd over. They stoned Paul and dragged him outside the city, thinking he was dead. 20 But after the disciples had gathered around him, he got up and went back into the city. The next day he and Barnabas left for Derbe.

Like I just said, sometimes Paul didn’t get away without harm.  I can’t imagine being stoned so severely that people think you are dead, and then getting up and going back to the city!

The Return to Antioch in Syria

21 They preached the good news in that city and won a large number of disciples. Then they returned to Lystra, Iconium and Antioch, 22 strengthening the disciples and encouraging them to remain true to the faith. “We must go through many hardships to enter the kingdom of God,” they said. 23 Paul and Barnabas appointed elders for them in each church and, with prayer and fasting, committed them to the Lord, in whom they had put their trust. 24 After going through Pisidia, they came into Pamphylia, 25 and when they had preached the word in Perga, they went down to Attalia.

Paul’s message in v. 22 is different than what many “health and wealth gospel” and other teachers preach.  There is a reason that many people take the wide gate instead of the narrow gate (Matthew 7).  Jesus’ yoke is easy and his burden is light because He is with us, but being a Christian can involve hardship.  We won’t regret sacrifices made for Christ, but we shouldn’t soft-sell the Christian life to people.  If we only tell about the peace, joy and love we aren’t telling the whole story.

26 From Attalia they sailed back to Antioch, where they had been committed to the grace of God for the work they had now completed. 27 On arriving there, they gathered the church together and reported all that God had done through them and how he had opened the door of faith to the Gentiles. 28 And they stayed there a long time with the disciples.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996, c1984. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.


las-vegas.jpgI spent a couple days in Las Vegas this week attending an Internal Audit conference (Motto: “As boring as it sounds!”) and doing a presentation on management and leadership.  Actually, the other speakers were very good and the presentation went really well.  Internal Auditing sounds dry but the investigative parts and the lack of repetition make it interesting.  I also got to visit with an old friend I hadn’t seen for 19 years, which was great. 

But I don’t have a need to go back to Vegas anytime soon. 

Vegas used to be known for cheap meals and shows, but no more.  Many of the entertainment tickets were $300 or so.  I’d rather go to NY City.  I never thought I’d say this about NYC, but I think the entertainment is quite a bit less expensive there.

Caesar’s Place stinks – literally and figuratively.  As soon as you walk in the door it reeked of cigarette smoke.  And the non-smoking room I reserved a few months ago wasn’t available, so I was left with a smoking room.  Some good news: There was a Margaritaville restaurant across the street so I had dinner there. 

Caesar’s charged for everything: $200 for the room (glad my employer was paying), $25 to work out, $12 for an Internet connection and $5 to have a boarding pass printed (I passed on the last two options).

I tend to agree with Dave Barry, who said something like, “When going to Las Vegas the most efficient thing is to just go in, dump out your wallet, and leave.”  I didn’t win – or lose – a dime. 

Day care

quicken2.gifA newspaper article about daycare got me thinking about family finances.

Many people have no choice but to use day care.  This post is not for them, at least in their current position.  The last thing I want to do is add to their burdens. 

But many people do have a choice.  This is for them. 

In the early 90’s part of my job was to manage the financial support for the Human Resources department at a Fortune 50 company.  We had some excess space in a building and I asked the Senior VP of HR whether he considered using it for an on-site day care.  He gave his reasons why it might not work out well (What if your kid beats up my kid?  What if an illness spreads and lots of people have to stay home with their kids?  Etc.). 

But the money quote came when he explained why he didn’t think much of day care: ” . . . because there is no G*d-d**n way I’m going to let somebody else raise my kid.” 

It certainly wasn’t the politically correct answer I expected from someone in his position, but I appreciated his honesty.

At the time we had our first child my wife had a successful career going and we could have had a big pile of money on the table if she had kept working.  We’ve made other smart and dumb financial moves, but we have never regretted having her stay home their first 10-12 years, and then having a career that coincided with their school calendar.  Not for a second.

My advice to young couples is to learn to live on one income.  Save the 2nd income.  I give my wife credit for driving us to that.  When we got married she made it clear that she planned to stay home with the kids, at least while they were young.  Kids were a foreign concept to me at the time so I went along with the plan.  We made house and car decisions solely based on my salary, so when she quit her job we had some money saved and didn’t change our standard of living at all.  OK, we slept less and changed lots of diapers, but we didn’t change our spending habits.

If you have young kids and you both work, ask yourself how badly you need the bigger house and fancier cars. 

It is such a basic human concept that you can live with less until you’ve had more.  People think they have to work but they really don’t.  Don’t sacrifice the well-being of your children to maintain material possessions that won’t last. 

The myth is that no one sacrifices.  The reality is that you sacrifice possessions or you sacrifice part of your kids. 

It isn’t that dads have to provide 100% of the resources and moms have to provide 100% of the caring.  Maybe it is more like 70/30 or so.

I highly recommend Crown Financial Ministries and Dave Ramsey.  If you aren’t familiar with them, please check them out.  They have helped transform the lives of many people.

Here’s a final thought that I always share with my departments at introductory meetings: All your money and all your success cannot buy your kids a second childhood.

Acts 13


Barnabas and Saul Sent Off

13     In the church at Antioch there were prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen (who had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch) and Saul. 2 While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” 3 So after they had fasted and prayed, they placed their hands on them and sent them off.

Fasting is mentioned many times in the Bible, but I am not aware of any specific teachings about it.  Do you fast?  If so, what type and what duration do you do? 

I haven’t done much fasting myself.  It seems like it would be an easy trap to turn it into another “works” exercise.  If done properly, I can see how it would shift our focus to God and make us more grateful for what He supplies for us so bountifully. 

On Cyprus

4 The two of them, sent on their way by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia and sailed from there to Cyprus. 5 When they arrived at Salamis, they proclaimed the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. John was with them as their helper.

I never pictured John as interacting much with Saul (Paul).  One thing I’ve enjoyed about doing this blog is that it makes me slow down a bit when reading the Bible.  I notice more things that way.

6 They traveled through the whole island until they came to Paphos. There they met a Jewish sorcerer and false prophet named Bar-Jesus, 7 who was an attendant of the proconsul, Sergius Paulus. The proconsul, an intelligent man, sent for Barnabas and Saul because he wanted to hear the word of God. 8 But Elymas the sorcerer (for that is what his name means) opposed them and tried to turn the proconsul from the faith. 9 Then Saul, who was also called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, looked straight at Elymas and said, 10 “You are a child of the devil and an enemy of everything that is right! You are full of all kinds of deceit and trickery. Will you never stop perverting the right ways of the Lord? 11 Now the hand of the Lord is against you. You are going to be blind, and for a time you will be unable to see the light of the sun.”

V. 9 notes that Saul was also known as Paul.  I used to think that Jesus changed his name, but I think it was one of those language things.

Paul is so direct!  I wish today’s false teachers would be rebuked as in v. 10.

Immediately mist and darkness came over him, and he groped about, seeking someone to lead him by the hand. 12 When the proconsul saw what had happened, he believed, for he was amazed at the teaching about the Lord.

In Pisidian Antioch

13 From Paphos, Paul and his companions sailed to Perga in Pamphylia, where John left them to return to Jerusalem. 14 From Perga they went on to Pisidian Antioch. On the Sabbath they entered the synagogue and sat down. 15 After the reading from the Law and the Prophets, the synagogue rulers sent word to them, saying, “Brothers, if you have a message of encouragement for the people, please speak.”

16 Standing up, Paul motioned with his hand and said: “Men of Israel and you Gentiles who worship God, listen to me! 17 The God of the people of Israel chose our fathers; he made the people prosper during their stay in Egypt, with mighty power he led them out of that country, 18 he endured their conduct for about forty years in the desert, 19 he overthrew seven nations in Canaan and gave their land to his people as their inheritance. 20 All this took about 450 years.

“After this, God gave them judges until the time of Samuel the prophet. 21 Then the people asked for a king, and he gave them Saul son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled forty years. 22 After removing Saul, he made David their king. He testified concerning him: ‘I have found David son of Jesse a man after my own heart; he will do everything I want him to do.’

23 “From this man’s descendants God has brought to Israel the Savior Jesus, as he promised. 24 Before the coming of Jesus, John preached repentance and baptism to all the people of Israel. 25 As John was completing his work, he said: ‘Who do you think I am? I am not that one. No, but he is coming after me, whose sandals I am not worthy to untie.’

26 “Brothers, children of Abraham, and you God-fearing Gentiles, it is to us that this message of salvation has been sent. 27 The people of Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize Jesus, yet in condemning him they fulfilled the words of the prophets that are read every Sabbath. 28 Though they found no proper ground for a death sentence, they asked Pilate to have him executed. 29 When they had carried out all that was written about him, they took him down from the tree and laid him in a tomb. 30 But God raised him from the dead, 31 and for many days he was seen by those who had traveled with him from Galilee to Jerusalem. They are now his witnesses to our people.

32 “We tell you the good news: What God promised our fathers 33 he has fulfilled for us, their children, by raising up Jesus. As it is written in the second Psalm:

“‘You are my Son; today I have become your Father.’

34 The fact that God raised him from the dead, never to decay, is stated in these words:

“‘I will give you the holy and sure blessings promised to David.’ 35 So it is stated elsewhere:

“‘You will not let your Holy One see decay.’

36 “For when David had served God’s purpose in his own generation, he fell asleep; he was buried with his fathers and his body decayed. 37 But the one whom God raised from the dead did not see decay.

38 “Therefore, my brothers, I want you to know that through Jesus the forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you. 39 Through him everyone who believes is justified from everything you could not be justified from by the law of Moses. 40 Take care that what the prophets have said does not happen to you:

41 “‘Look, you scoffers, wonder and perish, for I am going to do something in your days that you would never believe, even if someone told you.’”

42 As Paul and Barnabas were leaving the synagogue, the people invited them to speak further about these things on the next Sabbath. 43 When the congregation was dismissed, many of the Jews and devout converts to Judaism followed Paul and Barnabas, who talked with them and urged them to continue in the grace of God.

What a beautiful and concise message.  It reminds me of Stephen’s speech to the Sanhedrin (the Jewish council in Jerusalem) where he summarized the Old Testament and then pointed to Jesus.  Paul focuses on the bodily resurrection of Jesus and the message that forgiveness of sins is obtained through belief in him.

44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city gathered to hear the word of the Lord. 45 When the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and talked abusively against what Paul was saying.

Just as with the leaders in Israel, some people covet their power and prestige more than the truth of God.  These leaders should have known the prophecies of Jesus and embraced the truth of his life, death and resurrection.

46 Then Paul and Barnabas answered them boldly: “We had to speak the word of God to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy of eternal life, we now turn to the Gentiles. 47 For this is what the Lord has commanded us:

“‘I have made you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring salvation to the ends of the earth.’”

48 When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed.

49 The word of the Lord spread through the whole region. 50 But the Jews incited the God-fearing women of high standing and the leading men of the city. They stirred up persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them from their region. 51 So they shook the dust from their feet in protest against them and went to Iconium. 52 And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996, c1984. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Shaking the dust from their feet was a reference to Jesus’ words to the Disciples in Matthew 10:14.  If people reject the Gospel message we should move on.  Perhaps another person will bring the Gospel message when the hearers are ready.  I am trying to be more diligent in properly applying this verse when dealing with skeptics.  I want to plant a seed with them, but I don’t want to polarize them further. 

Also, some people, even those claiming to be Christian yet who deny most or all of the essentials of the faith, can waste a lot of your time if you let them.  They argue endlessly and are not open to the truth of God.  I am trying to take that valuable time to share the truth with people who are open to it.

Acts 12


King Herod (Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great), was partly Jewish.  He had James put to death for reasons that appeared to be political, not religous.

He might have known that Peter escaped from prison once before (see Acts 5, starting with v. 17), so security was probably quite high.  But God rescued Peter once again.  He didn’t always rescue him, though, as Peter was eventually crucified for his faith.

Peter’s Miraculous Escape From Prison

12     It was about this time that King Herod arrested some who belonged to the church, intending to persecute them. 2 He had James, the brother of John, put to death with the sword. 3 When he saw that this pleased the Jews, he proceeded to seize Peter also. This happened during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. 4 After arresting him, he put him in prison, handing him over to be guarded by four squads of four soldiers each. Herod intended to bring him out for public trial after the Passover.

5 So Peter was kept in prison, but the church was earnestly praying to God for him.

6 The night before Herod was to bring him to trial, Peter was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains, and sentries stood guard at the entrance. 7 Suddenly an angel of the Lord appeared and a light shone in the cell. He struck Peter on the side and woke him up. “Quick, get up!” he said, and the chains fell off Peter’s wrists.

8 Then the angel said to him, “Put on your clothes and sandals.” And Peter did so. “Wrap your cloak around you and follow me,” the angel told him. 9 Peter followed him out of the prison, but he had no idea that what the angel was doing was really happening; he thought he was seeing a vision. 10 They passed the first and second guards and came to the iron gate leading to the city. It opened for them by itself, and they went through it. When they had walked the length of one street, suddenly the angel left him.

11 Then Peter came to himself and said, “Now I know without a doubt that the Lord sent his angel and rescued me from Herod’s clutches and from everything the Jewish people were anticipating.”

12 When this had dawned on him, he went to the house of Mary the mother of John, also called Mark, where many people had gathered and were praying. 13 Peter knocked at the outer entrance, and a servant girl named Rhoda came to answer the door. 14 When she recognized Peter’s voice, she was so overjoyed she ran back without opening it and exclaimed, “Peter is at the door!”

15 “You’re out of your mind,” they told her. When she kept insisting that it was so, they said, “It must be his angel.”

This is a true event, but you might think it is something out of a bad situation comedy on TV.  Instead of opening the door and letting Peter in, Rhoda gets so excited that she just runs to tell the others. 

They have been praying for Peter’s release, but when it happens they are skeptical.  God answers prayers even when our faith is weak.

The believers apparently believed in personal angels.   There is a lot of things taught about angels that are untrue.  We don’t become angels when we die, for example.  They are a different type of created being.  And we don’t know exactly how they operate.  But the Bible is clear that angels worship God, are his messengers and can protect us.

16 But Peter kept on knocking, and when they opened the door and saw him, they were astonished. 17 Peter motioned with his hand for them to be quiet and described how the Lord had brought him out of prison. “Tell James and the brothers about this,” he said, and then he left for another place.

18 In the morning, there was no small commotion among the soldiers as to what had become of Peter. 19 After Herod had a thorough search made for him and did not find him, he cross-examined the guards and ordered that they be executed.

Herod’s Death

Then Herod went from Judea to Caesarea and stayed there a while. 20 He had been quarreling with the people of Tyre and Sidon; they now joined together and sought an audience with him. Having secured the support of Blastus, a trusted personal servant of the king, they asked for peace, because they depended on the king’s country for their food supply.

21 On the appointed day Herod, wearing his royal robes, sat on his throne and delivered a public address to the people. 22 They shouted, “This is the voice of a god, not of a man.” 23 Immediately, because Herod did not give praise to God, an angel of the Lord struck him down, and he was eaten by worms and died.

24 But the word of God continued to increase and spread.

25 When Barnabas and Saul had finished their mission, they returned from Jerusalem, taking with them John, also called Mark.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996, c1984. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

The “Mark” referred to here was a close companion of Peter’s and wrote the Gospel that bears his name.  Here is some background on Mark.  He and Saul (Paul) will have a falling out and eventual reconciliation (sorry to give away the ending!).

Kenya mission trip

lumc.jpgAlso see Kenya – travel & fun and Kenya – safari

A team of 16 from Lakewood United Methodist Church went on a mission trip to Kenya from September 20 – October 6 to share the love and truth of Christ.  We had the opportunity to do many things, such as helping build three homes for AIDS orphans, doing some maintenance at the hospital (mainly painting), visiting with the local church, sewing, dentistry (we had a dentist on the team), teaching some workshops, visiting remote clinics, worshiping and much more.  I shared some details below, but team members are welcome to add comments with their own thoughts and experiences.

I also had a chance to visit with Dennis, one of our World Vision sponsor children since 1999.  It was an absolute delight to spend a couple hours visiting with him on all sorts of topics.  He is an amazing young man.

God is so good and we were blessed throughout the trip.

View all the pictures here.  You can view pictures individually, see a larger slideshow or download them.  Here’s a sample:

AIDS orphans homes

The main project we do is to help construct homes for AIDS orphans and their caregivers (often their grandparents, but sometimes just someone in the community).  These homes give the kids a safe place to live, help them stay off the streets and out of drugs and prostitution, and help them attend school and having a place to study.

In addition to all the great things it does for the children and their caregives, the program makes a great witness to the community.  It helps the church evangelize and spread the Good News of Jesus when the community comes out to see the houses being built and dedicated.  The local leaders challenge the people to share with each other and encourage one another. 

The purpose of the AIDS Orphans’ Project is to provide food, schooling, medical care and improved housing for AIDS orphans and to train their guardians in caring for these children. This project was established in response to the needs of the increasing numbers of AIDS orphans within the region that the hospital serves. Maua Methodist Hospital serves a district of 600,000 people as their only full service hospital. The AIDS orphan children are in desperate circumstances. The hospital is reaching out to them to share the Love of Jesus Christ by helping to care for their basic needs, and by giving hope for a better life.

Food distribution

We got to witness a monthly food distribution for those in the AIDS orphan program.  These ladies are incredible.  They sing and dance with such joy over receiving a 30-40 lb. bag of grain, then they put it on their backs to carry it several miles back to their homes.  What incredible gratitude!

Hospital work

Helping the hospital with repairs, maintenance and construction – financially and with our labor – helps them serve people who can’t afford any services at all.  Here’s an example of who this helps written by Jeri Savuto, a missionary at the hospital:

On Thurs. 20 Sept. 2007 Linnet W., a 24 year old mother of two, was brought into the hospital by neighbors. She had been found lying in the bush near her home. The night before her husband had come to their home, dragged her out and using a panga had cut her 25 times. He cut off both hands and her right foot was dangling. He cut off one ear and cut her back, legs, chest, face, and head. He had left her for dead.

When the neighbors brought her into the hospital she was in shock, which had caused the wounds to stop bleeding, and was covered with insects, dirt, debris, and dried blood.

To everyone’s amazement, Linnet was alive, able to talk, and move all limbs. She was cleaned, given blood, and immediately went to surgery. The day of her admission, the Senior Nurses met and were all asked to pray for Linnet. Each of us have visited her to pray and comfort her. Many of the staff bring her food and take part of their lunch time to feed her and spend time praying for her. In my visits with Linnet, I am amazed at her strength, her will to live, her hope and faith in God.

She has a five year old and one year old child. Her husband turned himself into the police the next day thinking she was dead. He is being held in prison.

Linnet will spend months in our hospital. She will need more surgeries and much care. She has no money to pay for her care but she will be taken care of because Maua Methodist Hospital is committed to care for the least of these. At present her hospital bill is already 30,000 Ksh ($448). Maua Methodist Hospital can take care of Linnet and many others without money because of our Advance Special #09613A – Maua Hospital Service Fund, Kenya”. Bill and I are so grateful to each of you who have given to the Service Fund. Usually $150 saves a life in Maua. Today I ask you to join our staff in praying for Linnet. As you pray please remember that a gift of $15 – $20 a month to the Service Fund makes a huge difference in the lives of many. It brings healing, hope, and love.


Money goes a long way in Kenya. 

  • For $15 per month, you can feed, clothe and educate a young AIDS orphan.
  • For about $100 per year an AIDS orphan can be fed three nutritious meals per day. For about $80 per year, she could be in primary school.
  • For $2000 you can build a home for a guardian and several AIDS orphans.
  • $1 pays for a malaria test for an outpatient
  • $2 pays for a doctor to diagnose an illness
  • $3 buys medicine to cure a child with malaria
  • $10 buys antibiotics to cure a patient with typhoid
  • $100 cures a baby with pneumonia and malaria as an inpatient for seven days in the hospital
  • $26 provides antiretroviral drugs for one month in the Palliative Care program to keep a mother with AIDS alive to raise her children
  • $5 pays for immunizations for all childhood diseases for the first year of an infant’s life
  • $10 pays for medication to prevent transfer of AIDS from a pregnant mother to her baby

Should you wish to participate, please send your donation directly to the following address.

Lakewood United Methodist Church
11330 Louetta Road
Houston, TX 77070

Please make your donation payable to Lakewood United Methodist Church and add a note indicating this is to be used toward ‘Kenya Missions-Maua Methodist Hospital’ along with any other specific instructions you would like to provide.


Worshiping in a foreign country is a great experience.  The churches we visited sang many of the same songs, but mixed some Swahili songs and messages into the services.  The people were passionate, joyful and evangelistic.